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عبارت (phrase) در انگلیسی

عبارت گروهی از کلمات است که یک مفهوم را بیان می کند و به عنوان واحد  داخل یک جمله استفاده می شود ولی فاعل و فعل ندارد،  5 نوع از عبارات متداول عبارتند از:
1- عبارت اسمی   2- عبارت فعلی  3- عبارت حرف اضافه ای  4- عبارت قیدی  5- عبارت وصفی
توجه داشته باشید که عبارت (phrase) میتواند همچنین هر گروه کوچکی از کلمات مانند
/ after the meal/the nice neighbor/were waiting for the movie و یا اصطلاحاتی مانند as a piece of cake/ back to square one / میتوانند به عنوان عبارت یاد کرد.

تشریح انواع عبارت در انگلیسی

عبارت اسمی Noun Phrase

یک عبارت اسمی (NP) می تواند یک اسم واحد یا گروهی از کلمات باشد که در اطراف یک اسم واحد ساخته شده اند ، به عنوان مثال:

Animals need water.
حیوانات به آب احتیاج دارند

Who ate the last sandwich?
کی آخرین ساندویچ را خورد؟

All passengers with tickets can board now.
تمام مسافران به همراه بلیت میتوانند سوار شوند

:مثالهای بیشتر برای عبارت اسمی

The spotted puppy is up for adoption.
(Noun phrase as a subject)

The bohemian house was brightly decorated for the holidays.
(Noun phrase as a subject)

At the zoo, I saw a striped zebra.
(Noun phrase as an object to the verb “saw”)

I want a cute puppy for Christmas.
(Noun phrase as an object to the verb “want”)

Mary lives in an eclectic household.
(Noun phrase as a prepositional object; preposition = “in”)

Jose drives to an awful job every morning.
(Noun phrase as a prepositional object; preposition = “to”)

The car wash was out of order.
(Noun phrase with “car” acting as an adjective for the noun “wash”)

The Delta Airlines flight to New York is ready to board.
(Noun phrase with “Delta Airlines” acting as an adjective for the noun “flight”)

She kindly offered water to the gardener working in the hot sun.
(Noun phrase as a participle)

Having been a police officer, he knew how to defend himself.
(Noun phrase as a participle)

The ability to give to others is an important character trait.
(Noun phrase as a “to-infinitive”)

Our decision to get married was celebrated by all our friends.
(Noun phrase as a “to-infinitive”)

She crawled through the dark and musty attic.
(Noun phrase as a prepositional phrase; preposition = “through”)

He had to sit beside the horribly angry girl.
(Noun phrase as a prepositional phrase; preposition = “beside”)

Her face red with embarrassment, she took her seat beside the man she had tripped.
(Noun phrase as an absolute phrase to the subject “she”)

They walked into the sunset, their laughter carrying on the breeze.
(Noun phrase as an absolute phrase to the subject “they”)


عبارت فعلی Verb Phrase

عبارت فعلی یا گروه فعلی شامل فعل اصلی و فعلهای کمکی اش (افعال modal را هم شامل می شود ) می باشد مثال :

We have been working since 9am.
از ساعت 9 داریم کار میکنیم

I will be going to France next week.
هفته بعد در حال رفتن به فرانسه م

It may have been being repaired.
اون ممکنه در حال آماده شدن بوده باشه

مثالهای بیشتر برای عبارتهای فعلی:


She was walking quickly to the mall.

He should wait before going swimming.

Those girls are not trying very hard.

Ted might eat the cake.

You must go right now.

You can’t eat that!

My mother is fixing us some dinner.

Words were spoken.

These cards may be worth hundreds of dollars!

The teacher is writing a report.

You have woken up everyone in the neighborhood.


عبارت وصفی Adjective Phrase

یک عبارت وصفی می تواند یک صفت منفرد یا گروهی از کلمات باشد که حول یک صفت واحد ساخته شده اند ، برای مثال:

He has clever ideas.
او ایده های هوشمندانه ای داره

It was a very big meal.
وعده ی خیلی سنگینی بود

The students were really bored with the film.
دانش آموزان با فیلم خیلی کسل شدند

مثالهای بیشتر برای عبارتهای وصفی:


That movie is getting scarier and scarier.

I really wanted to paint it eggplant purple.

The man covered in sweat took a well-deserved break.

Grass-fed organic beef is the best choice.

She was proud of her son winning the science fair.

The animal cowering in the corner was rescued and given a good home.

My brother is older than me.

This stone is the heaviest of all.

I am quite enamored with him.

The music from next door was annoyingly loud.

Jorge was merely anxious to get on his way.

I love the taste of a sweet juicy peach.

The boys were annoyed about the long lines.

I feel sorry for people living on the streets.

The dancing was exquisitely graceful.

Beaming with joy, her face lit up the room.

She is the chief pediatric surgeon at the institute.


عبارت قیدی Adverb Phrase

یک عبارت قیدی می تواند یک قید  یا گروهی از کلمات باشد که در اطراف یک قید واحد ساخته شده اند ، برای مثال:

Please do it now.
لطفا همین الان انجامش بده

He spoke very softly.
او خیلی آرام حرف زد

They did it as fast as possible.
آنها با بیشترین سرعت ممکن انجامش دادند

مثالهای بیشتر برای عبارتهای قیدی:


Adverb Phrases Describing How
Surprisingly well

In total silence

Often under duress

Very carefully

Quite easily

Adverb Phrases Describing Where
Near the edge

Through the looking glass

Over the rainbow

By the mailbox

Around the sun

Adverb Phrases Describing Why
To understand better

For her happily ever after

For pity’s sake

To make the most of it

To end discrimination

Adverb Phrases Describing When
As quickly as possible

Any time

Yesterday afternoon

After a few minutes
Never at midnight


عبارت حرف اضافه ای Prepositional Phrase

یک عبارت حرف اضافه ای شامل یک حرف اضافه  است که به دنبال آن مفعول آن (معمولاً یک عبارت اسمی)  می اید برای مثال:

They were arguing about money.
داشتند در مورد پول مشاجره میکردند

The window was behind a large brown sofa.
پنجره پشت یک مبل بزرگ قهوه ای بود

They resumed after an unusually large meal.
بعد از یک وعده ی سنگین ادامه دادند

مثالهای بیشتر برای عبارتهای حرف اضافه ای


According to the weather forecast

Across many deserts

After many tries

Amid the confusion

Around the world

Before we start the meeting

Between a rock and a hard place

By the light of the moon

Like a beautiful swan

The book with the tattered cover has been read many times.

All the passengers aboard the runaway train were frightened.

The present inside the big box is mine.

Our boss put out a memo regarding the new rule.

The balloon drifted up the stairs.

Put the fresh flowers on a high shelf.

Our team won against all odds.

The tiger crept over the grass.

 


 


در مثال زیر در یک جمله واره میتوانیم تمام عبارتها را مشاهده کنیم :

و یا در این مثال :
عبارت

تفاوت phrase و  clause

انواع مختلفی از phrase  (عبارت) و clause (جمله واره) در انگلیسی وجود دارد، اولین راه برای متوجه شدن تفاوت بین این دو ساختار ، فهمیدن انواع مختلف phrase / clause می باشد phrase ، یک گروه مرتبط با کلمات است که کلمات با هم به عنوان یک “واحد” کار می کنند ، اما فاعل و فعل ندارند. و مهمترین تفاوت آنها با جمله واره در همین موضوع است جمله واره ها هم فعل و هم فاعل دارند بعضی جمله واره ها مستقل هستند (Independent) به این معنا که به تنهایی یک ایده ی جامعی را میرسانند و نیازی به جمله ی دیگر برای تکمیل شدن ندارند،  و برخی دیگر  جمله واره های وابسته Dependent یا Subordinate

مثالهایی برای Phrase و clause

Examples of Phrases  نمونه مثالهای عبارت

1. the boy on the bus (noun phrase)

2. will be running (verb phrase)

3. in the kitchen (prepositional phrase)

4. very quickly (adverb phrase)

5. Martha and Jan (noun phrase)


Examples of Clauses  نمونه مثالهای جمله واره

1. When I get home (dependent or subordinate clause)

2. The lights are not on. (independent clause)

3. When you wake up (dependent or subordinate clause)

4. Put it on the shelf. (independent clause-understood subject “you)

5. Since it fell on the floor (dependent or subordinate clause)

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