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در این پست به بررسی انواع قیدها در زبان انگلیسی میپردازیم:

1- قید حالت Adverbs of Manner

این نوع قیدها حالت انجام اتفاقات را به ما شرح میدهند و معمولا پاسخگوی سوال “چگونه؟” هستند و عمدتا شدت انجام فعل را توصیف میکنند.
به مثالهای زیر توجه کنید همگی قید حالت هستند»

He speaks slowly. (How does he speak?)
او آرام صحبت میکند

They helped us cheerfully. (How did they help us?)
انها با روی گشاده به ما کمک کردند

James Bond drives his cars fast. (How does James Bond drive his cars?)
جیمزباند ماشینهایش را سریع میراند

این نوع قیدها معمولا با فعلهای اکشن یا کنشی به کار میروند.

He ran fast. She came quickly. They worked happily.
او سریع دوید. او سریع امد. انها با خوشحالی کار کردند

She looked beautifully. It seems strangely. They are happily.


مثالهای بیشتر:

Brutally: It was brutally clear he was not interested in hearing my opinion.

Cheerfully: April cheerfully greeted Mark each morning.

Expertly: Adam expertly maneuvered the components of the machine into their proper positions.

Randomly: I love to randomly share interesting trivia with my friends and family.

Sloppily: He writes sloppily, but insists his ideas are more important than having perfect penmanship.

Uneasily: Jemma sighed uneasily, knowing that the dark sky was a sign of the impending storm.

Weirdly: She dances weirdly, but her quirky personality is what I love the most.

Wholeheartedly: I wholeheartedly believe education is the key to a better future.

Wickedly: “I don’t think you want to know the whole story,” he said wickedly.


لیست قیدهای حالت :

accidentally
angrily
anxiously
awkwardly
badly
beautifully
blindly
boldly
bravely
brightly
busily
calmly
carefully
carelessly
cautiously
cheerfully
clearly
closely
correctly
courageously
cruelly
daringly
deliberately
doubtfully
eagerly
easily
elegantly
enormously
enthusiastically
equally
eventually
exactly
faithfully
fast
fatally
fiercely
fondly
foolishly
fortunately
frankly
frantically
generously
gently
gladly
gracefully
greedily
happily
hard
hastily
healthily
honestly
hungrily
hurriedly
inadequately
ingeniously
innocently
inquisitively
irritably
joyously
justly
kindly
lazily
loosely
loudly
madly
mortally
mysteriously
neatly
nervously
noisily
obediently
openly
painfully
patiently
perfectly
politely
poorly
powerfully
promptly
punctually
quickly
quietly
rapidly
rarely
really
recklessly
regularly
reluctantly
repeatedly
rightfully
roughly
rudely
sadly
safely
selfishly
sensibly
seriously
sharply
shyly
silently
sleepily
slowly
smoothly
so
softly
solemnly
speedily
stealthily
sternly
straight
stupidly
successfully
suddenly
suspiciously
swiftly
tenderly
tensely
thoughtfully
tightly
truthfully
unexpectedly
victoriously
violently
vivaciously
warmly
weakly
wearily
well
wildly
wisely

2- قید مکان Adverbs of Place

قیدهای مکان همانطور که از نامشان پیداست محل انجام فعل را به ما میگویند و عمدتا فعل را ویرایش میکنند و جواب سوال کجا؟ ?where  را به ما میدهند.

Please sit here. (Where should I sit?)
اینجا بشین

They looked everywhere. (Where did they look?)
به همه جا نگاه کردند

Two cars were parked outside. (Where were two cars parked?)
دو ماشین بیرون پارک شده بودند


مثالهای بیشتر :

Downstairs: The public library often holds meetings downstairs.

Everywhere: Jack looked everywhere for his missing keys.

Here: She will plant her garden here.

In: We stayed in to watch a movie instead of attending the party.

Inside: When it’s hot and humid, Anna likes to read inside.

Outside: The children love to play outside.

Somewhere: I want to go fishing somewhere warm and sunny.

There: We went to Minnesota for my cousin’s wedding and stayed there for three nights.

Underground: The gopher began burrowing underground.

Upstairs: I went upstairs to see my grandma who was on bed rest.

 


لیست قیدهای مکان:

about
above
abroad
anywhere
away
back
backwards (also backward)
behind
below
down
downstairs
east (etc)
elsewhere
far
here
in
indoors
inside
near
nearby
off
on
out
outside
over
there
towards
under
up
upstairs
where


3-قید زمان Adverbs of Time

قیدهای زمان همانطور که از نامشان پیداست زمان انجام فعل را به ما میگویند و عمدتا فعل را ویرایش میکنند و جواب سوال کجا؟ ?when را به ما میدهند.
مثال:

He came yesterday. (When did he come?)
او دیروز آمد

I want it now. (When do I want it?)
الان میخوامش

این قیدها همچنین پاسخگوی سوال how often  (اغلب چندبار)  نیز هستند.

They deliver the newspaper daily. (How often do they deliver the newspaper?)
آنها روزانه روزنامه ها را تحویل می دهند

We sometimes watch a movie. (How often do we watch a movie?)
ما گاهی اوقات فیلم میبینیم

مثالهای بیشتر :


Early: She arrived early for the meeting.

First: When I bake, I make cookies first.

Last: When I clean, I do laundry last.

Later: I will stop by later to see how you are doing.

Never: He never wants to go to the park with me.

Now: The movie is starting now.

Regularly: Writing regularly in my journal is soothing.

Today: I have many things to accomplish today.

Tomorrow: Tomorrow, we are going to the movies.

Yesterday: She came over for a visit yesterday.


لیست قیدهای زمان :

points of time (definite)
now
then
today
tomorrow
tonight
yesterday
frequency (definite)
annually
daily
fortnightly
hourly
monthly
nightly
quarterly
weekly
yearly

frequency (indefinite)

always
constantly
ever
frequently
generally
infrequently
never
normally
occasionally
often
rarely
regularly
seldom
sometimes
regularly
usually

relationships in time (indefinite)

already
before
early
earlier
eventually
finally
first
formerly
just
last
late
later
lately
next
previously
recently
since
soon
still
yet


4 – قید مقدار  (Adverbs of Degree)

قیدهای مقدار ،درجه و شدت انجام فعل را به ما نشان میدهند، این نوع قیدها پاسخ سوالات ?how much?  to what extent را به ما میدهند. این نوع قیود میتوانند فعل و صفت یا قید دیگری را اصلاح کنند.
برای آشنایی بیشتر با این قیدها به مثالهای زیر توجه کنید »:

She entirely agrees with him. (How much does she agree with him?)
او تماما باهاش موافقه

Mary is very beautiful. (To what degree is Mary beautiful? How beautiful is Mary?)
ماری خیلی زیباست

He drove quite dangerously. (To what degree did he drive dangerously? How dangerously did he drive?)
او خیلی خطرناک رانندگی میکرد

مثالهای بیشتر :


1. The hot and sour pork was too spicy for me to eat.

2. I am just too tired to keep on working.

3. Is this box light enough for you to carry ?

4. Thank you very much for your nice words.

5. Do you have enough money for emergencies ?

6. How much calcium is enough to prevent bone loss ?

7. Don’t worry about your mother, she’ll be home very soon.

8. I’m very interested in everyone’s opinion, so I’ll appreciate your view.

9. We don’t get enough sleep because we have too much homework to do.

10. High-definition televisions are too expensive for the average American consumer.


لیست قیدهای مقدار :

almost
absolutely
awfully*
badly*
barely
completely
decidedly
deeply
enough
enormously
entirely
extremely
fairly
far
fully
greatly
hardly
highly
how
incredibly
indeed
intensely
just
least
less
little
lots
most
much
nearly
perfectly
positively
practically
pretty*
purely
quite
rather
really
scarcely
simply
so
somewhat
strongly
terribly*
thoroughly
too
totally
utterly
very
virtually
well


5- قید تکرار (Adverbs of Frequency)

قیدهای تکرار توضیح می دهند که چند بار فعل رخ می دهد، این نوع قیدها معمولاً مستقیماً در کنار فعل اصلی یک جمله قرار می گیرند.

I rarely eat fast food these days.
این روزها معمولا فست فود میخورم

Tom usually takes his dog for a walk before breakfast.
تام معمولا قبل از صبحانه سگش را برای دواندن میبره

They always go to the same restaurant every Friday.
آنها همیشه  جمعه ها به همون رستورانه میرن


مثالهای تکمیلی

I always update the calendar at the beginning of the month.
Poetria often takes notes during the Skype sessions.
I am never late.
Skype is occasionally frustrating.
They were always noisy.
Anne doesn’t usually smoke.
I have never been to Asia.
Usually I don’t give personal advice. = I don’t usually give personal advice.
Occasionally we go for a drive on a Sunday. = We occasionally go for a drive on a Sunday.
I always used to celebrate bonfire night.
I usually have to get up early to walk Laika.

لیست قیدهای تکرار :

always
frequently
generally
hardly ever
infrequently
never
normally
occasionally
often
rarely
regularly
seldom
sometimes
usually

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