در این پست به بررسی انواع قیدها در زبان انگلیسی میپردازیم:
1- قید حالت Adverbs of Manner
این نوع قیدها حالت انجام اتفاقات را به ما شرح میدهند و معمولا پاسخگوی سوال “چگونه؟” هستند و عمدتا شدت انجام فعل را توصیف میکنند.
به مثالهای زیر توجه کنید همگی قید حالت هستند»
He speaks slowly. (How does he speak?)
او آرام صحبت میکند
They helped us cheerfully. (How did they help us?)
انها با روی گشاده به ما کمک کردند
James Bond drives his cars fast. (How does James Bond drive his cars?)
جیمزباند ماشینهایش را سریع میراند
این نوع قیدها معمولا با فعلهای اکشن یا کنشی به کار میروند.
He ran fast. She came quickly. They worked happily.
او سریع دوید. او سریع امد. انها با خوشحالی کار کردند
She looked beautifully. It seems strangely. They are happily.
Brutally: It was brutally clear he was not interested in hearing my opinion.
Cheerfully: April cheerfully greeted Mark each morning.
Expertly: Adam expertly maneuvered the components of the machine into their proper positions.
Randomly: I love to randomly share interesting trivia with my friends and family.
Sloppily: He writes sloppily, but insists his ideas are more important than having perfect penmanship.
Uneasily: Jemma sighed uneasily, knowing that the dark sky was a sign of the impending storm.
Weirdly: She dances weirdly, but her quirky personality is what I love the most.
Wholeheartedly: I wholeheartedly believe education is the key to a better future.
Wickedly: “I don’t think you want to know the whole story,” he said wickedly.
لیست قیدهای حالت :
2- قید مکان Adverbs of Place
قیدهای مکان همانطور که از نامشان پیداست محل انجام فعل را به ما میگویند و عمدتا فعل را ویرایش میکنند و جواب سوال کجا؟ ?where را به ما میدهند.
Please sit here. (Where should I sit?)
They looked everywhere. (Where did they look?)
به همه جا نگاه کردند
Two cars were parked outside. (Where were two cars parked?)
دو ماشین بیرون پارک شده بودند
مثالهای بیشتر :
Downstairs: The public library often holds meetings downstairs.
Everywhere: Jack looked everywhere for his missing keys.
Here: She will plant her garden here.
In: We stayed in to watch a movie instead of attending the party.
Inside: When it’s hot and humid, Anna likes to read inside.
Outside: The children love to play outside.
Somewhere: I want to go fishing somewhere warm and sunny.
There: We went to Minnesota for my cousin’s wedding and stayed there for three nights.
Underground: The gopher began burrowing underground.
Upstairs: I went upstairs to see my grandma who was on bed rest.
لیست قیدهای مکان:
backwards (also backward)
3-قید زمان Adverbs of Time
قیدهای زمان همانطور که از نامشان پیداست زمان انجام فعل را به ما میگویند و عمدتا فعل را ویرایش میکنند و جواب سوال کجا؟ ?when را به ما میدهند.
He came yesterday. (When did he come?)
او دیروز آمد
I want it now. (When do I want it?)
این قیدها همچنین پاسخگوی سوال how often (اغلب چندبار) نیز هستند.
They deliver the newspaper daily. (How often do they deliver the newspaper?)
آنها روزانه روزنامه ها را تحویل می دهند
We sometimes watch a movie. (How often do we watch a movie?)
ما گاهی اوقات فیلم میبینیم
مثالهای بیشتر :
Early: She arrived early for the meeting.
First: When I bake, I make cookies first.
Last: When I clean, I do laundry last.
Later: I will stop by later to see how you are doing.
Never: He never wants to go to the park with me.
Now: The movie is starting now.
Regularly: Writing regularly in my journal is soothing.
Today: I have many things to accomplish today.
Tomorrow: Tomorrow, we are going to the movies.
Yesterday: She came over for a visit yesterday.
لیست قیدهای زمان :
points of time (definite)
relationships in time (indefinite)
4 – قید مقدار (Adverbs of Degree)
قیدهای مقدار ،درجه و شدت انجام فعل را به ما نشان میدهند، این نوع قیدها پاسخ سوالات ?how much? to what extent را به ما میدهند. این نوع قیود میتوانند فعل و صفت یا قید دیگری را اصلاح کنند.
برای آشنایی بیشتر با این قیدها به مثالهای زیر توجه کنید »:
She entirely agrees with him. (How much does she agree with him?)
او تماما باهاش موافقه
Mary is very beautiful. (To what degree is Mary beautiful? How beautiful is Mary?)
ماری خیلی زیباست
He drove quite dangerously. (To what degree did he drive dangerously? How dangerously did he drive?)
او خیلی خطرناک رانندگی میکرد
مثالهای بیشتر :
1. The hot and sour pork was too spicy for me to eat.
2. I am just too tired to keep on working.
3. Is this box light enough for you to carry ?
4. Thank you very much for your nice words.
5. Do you have enough money for emergencies ?
6. How much calcium is enough to prevent bone loss ?
7. Don’t worry about your mother, she’ll be home very soon.
8. I’m very interested in everyone’s opinion, so I’ll appreciate your view.
9. We don’t get enough sleep because we have too much homework to do.
10. High-definition televisions are too expensive for the average American consumer.
لیست قیدهای مقدار :
5- قید تکرار (Adverbs of Frequency)
قیدهای تکرار توضیح می دهند که چند بار فعل رخ می دهد، این نوع قیدها معمولاً مستقیماً در کنار فعل اصلی یک جمله قرار می گیرند.
I rarely eat fast food these days.
این روزها معمولا فست فود میخورم
Tom usually takes his dog for a walk before breakfast.
تام معمولا قبل از صبحانه سگش را برای دواندن میبره
They always go to the same restaurant every Friday.
آنها همیشه جمعه ها به همون رستورانه میرن
I always update the calendar at the beginning of the month.
Poetria often takes notes during the Skype sessions.
I am never late.
Skype is occasionally frustrating.
They were always noisy.
Anne doesn’t usually smoke.
I have never been to Asia.
Usually I don’t give personal advice. = I don’t usually give personal advice.
Occasionally we go for a drive on a Sunday. = We occasionally go for a drive on a Sunday.
I always used to celebrate bonfire night.
I usually have to get up early to walk Laika.
لیست قیدهای تکرار :